'The rare condition slowly paralysing my arms and legs', Anton Ferdinand explores the issue of racism in football, .css-orcmk8-HeadlineContainer{display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;-webkit-box-pack:justify;-webkit-justify-content:space-between;-ms-flex-pack:justify;justify-content:space-between;}Timnit Gebru: Google staff rally behind fired AI researcher.css-1dedj2h-Rank{-webkit-align-self:center;-ms-flex-item-align:center;align-self:center;color:#B80000;margin-left:3.125rem;}1, China becomes second nation to plant flag on the Moon2, Trump raises $200m for post-election legal battles3, Germany to wipe Nazi traces from phonetic alphabet4, 'Covid ended our marriage': The couples who split in the pandemic5, French Thalys train attacker 'tried to kill me three times'6, Sir Ian McKellen backs bid to buy JRR Tolkien house7, Covid: Biden to ask Americans to wear masks for 100 days8, Suspected Hollywood 'Con Queen' arrested in UK9, Dune and Matrix 4 streaming plan prompts urgent talks from AMC cinemas10. Kosiahs alleged victims will not travel to Switzerland testify in the case until next year. Fueled by a range of interests to back the government, ECOWAS responded with a peacekeeping force (ECOMOG) led by Nigeria, that arrived in Monrovia on 24 August 1990. But on 9 September 1990, while embarking on mediation efforts, Doe fell into the hands of Johnson’s INPFL, who tortured and killed him. 2004. Kaldor, Mary, and James Vincent. 2009. “Descriptive Statistics from Statements to the Liberian Truth and Reconciliation Commission,” Benetech Human Rights Program
for the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Liberia. The trial in Switzerland, which began on Thursday, is the first under a 2011 law that allows prosecution for war crimes committed anywhere in the world. The vote for Taylor was a vote for peace, following the logic that he represented the most powerful presence in the country and the only one capable of ending the fighting. Pastor requests compassionate release from federal prison. The Liberian civil war was one of Africa's bloodiest. Some rebel groups continued to operate and kill civilians up until the end of 1996. 2013. “Accounting for the Dynamics of One-Sided Violence: Introducing KOSVED”. 2005. Conflict erupted again from 1999 to 2003 and overall, the wars are believed to have caused a … [xxiv] (Its biases towards any and all anti-NPLF forces and internal corruption, of course, could also arguably be said to have prolonged the conflict). Accessed January 4, 2017. The agreement set the stage for national elections, won by Charles Taylor of the NPFL, who became President of Liberia in May 1997. [xv] Shelly Dick, “FMO Country Guide: Liberia,” . 1998. “Liberia: railroading peace.” Review of African Political Economy 25:75, 133 – 147. While Taylor was widely viewed as responsible for launching the war, his electoral bid, while far from “free and fair” was successful for at least two reasons. This has not been taken seriously by successive governments and there is little political will to make this happen. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP. World. 2002. Weissman, Fabrice. [xii] A small UN observer mission was deployed in September 1993 (UNOMIL). Across the two civil wars, as noted by detailed analysis of witness accounts in the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, “the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) launched by rebel leader Charles Taylor in 1989, is responsible for more than three times the number of reported violations as the next closest perpetrator group, the Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD).”[iii] While this is not necessarily the same distribution of murders attributable to groups, it is indicative of overall responsibility for violence. [xvii] They graph all reported incidents of violations (not just killing) as reported to the TRC: Source: Cibelli, Kristen, Amelia Hoover and Jule Krüger 2009, 7. Note: this graphs presents all reported instances of violations to the TRC. The Mask of Anarchy: The Destruction of Liberia and the Relgious Dimensions of an African Civil War. Man arrested in London on suspicion of Liberia war crimes, 'Change has arrived’: Why Thailand is in crisis. The war in Liberia is often described as an anarchic battle of warlords who preyed on the civilian population with armed forces composed of drugged-up, incontrollable, rag-tag soldiers, many of whom were children, themselves victims of the war. Alieu Kosiah, 45, is accused of murder, rape, recruiting child soldiers and a host of other crimes. We further code for multiple victim groups and note that the armed conflict as having reached a stalemate, as it cannot be said that any one force, despite Taylor’s control of much of the country, definitively won the war. Have trade talks taken a turn for the worse? A former Liberian rebel commander has gone on trial in Switzerland over alleged atrocities committed during the country’s long-running civil war. Accused Liberian warlord, Kosiah, claims innocence on first day of war crimes trial Alieu Kosiah, ex-warlord with the United Liberation, told the Swiss Federal Tribunal he did not harm anybody. Baù, Valentina. The trial has been postponed several times because of the coronavirus pandemic, and lawyers for the victims have opposed a decision to delay their hearings until next year. Abdullah, Ibrahim. [xiv], The UNHCR estimates a total of 1.9 million people, or roughly half the national population at the time, were displaced by 1996; 1.2 million internally and 700,000 extraterritorially; 235,000 refugees in Guinea, 160,000 in Cote d’Ivoire, 17,000 in Ghana, and 14,000 in Sierra Leone.[xv]. [ix] The period also saw the rise of several other rebel groups. Fighting between groups often degenerated into attacks against civilians. Adebajo, Adekeye. While international actors played many roles over the course of the conflict, in the end, it was a regional decision to broker a peace deal that ended the conflict and its pattern of atrocities. From 1989 to 1996, it claimed the lives of more than 200,000 Liberians and further displaced a million others into refugee camps in neighboring countries. [xiv] Schneider, Gerald and Margit Bussmann 2013. Lahneman, William J. He’s also accused of wanton, indiscriminate killings and a host of other atrocities during the civil war in Liberia. Lyons, Terrence. She denied any wrongdoing. [vi] Taylor’s NPFL managed to consolidate the country, except for key areas of Monrovia held by either ECOMOG or INPFL. Terms for Creating and Maintaining Sites, Documenting declines in civilian fatalities, https://hrdag.org/content/liberia/Benetech-TRC-descriptives-final.pdf, http://www.forcedmigration.org/research-resources/expert-guides/liberia/fmo013.pdf, http://web.undp.org/evaluation/documents/thematic/conflict/, http://www.massviolence.org/Sierra-Leone-List-of-extremely-violent-events-perpetrated, Inclusion of all rebel groups involved in the war, Secret deals between Charles Taylor and Nigeria regarding the agreed status of NPFL-ECOMOG relations, Government power sharing amongst all rebel groups, Support for the Accords amongst all backers of all rebel groups, Third party mediation of the agreement by parties that deployed resources in support of the agreement (including funds and assistance from the United States, European Union, various Francophone countries, and all ECOWAS members), Strict and clear sanctions against any violator of the Accords. The second source is analysis of testimony gathered for the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Liberia, which found evidence of 28,042 murders over the period 1979 – 2003. However, we note that separating violence against civilians from that amongst combatants is difficult in a case like this given widespread recruitment of children, and the often hastily assembled and ill-disciplined armed forces. Amherst, NY: Cambria. Mass atrocities against civilians occurred during the first Liberian civil war (1989 – 1996), fought between pro-government groups (ECOWAS, Armed Force of Liberia, LPC, ULIMO-J) and anti-government groups (NPFL/LDF, ULIMO, INPFL, ULIMO-K, NPFL-CRC). Non-Discrimination | Several coups were attempted against Doe, with large-scale violent contestation of his power beginning on December 24, 1989, with the invasion of 100 insurgents composing of the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL), led by Charles Taylor. The court is reportedly considering hearing testimonies from the victims via video link, although this has not been confirmed. Privacy | 1998. “Peace and Elections in Liberia” in ed. First, his coalition was more diverse than other contenders, who relied on a single ethnic group. 1999. It also marks the first time war crimes charges have been heard by a Swiss civilian court. He is now a strong and supportive ally of President Weah. Dressed in a […] As Victor Tanner writes, this effort produced a spike of fighting that pitted Taylor and Kromah against an alliance of ethnic Krahn militias. .css-8h1dth-Link{font-family:ReithSans,Helvetica,Arial,freesans,sans-serif;font-weight:700;-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;color:#FFFFFF;}.css-8h1dth-Link:hover,.css-8h1dth-Link:focus{-webkit-text-decoration:underline;text-decoration:underline;}Read about our approach to external linking. A former Liberian warlord, Alieu Kosiah, went on trial in Switzerland on Thursday for war crimes over alleged atrocities during the West Africa country’s civil war. [xvii] Cibelli, Hoover, Krüger, 2009, 24. [xxii] Second, the population viewed the vote as a contest not primarily between candidates, but rather for war or for peace. Around 250,000 people were killed in Liberia's civil wars, and many thousands more fled the fighting. In September 1991, ULIMO invaded Liberia from Sierra Leone, taking partial control of Western Liberia. However, we do also include the moderating influence of international actors as contributory to the ending. Publishedduration2 hours agoimage copyrightGetty Imagesimage captionIt is the first time war crimes charges have been heard by a Swiss civilian courtA former Liberian rebel commander has gone on trial in Switzerland over alleged atrocities committed during the country’s long-running civil war.Alieu Kosiah, 45, is accused of murder, rape, recruiting child soldiers and a host of… Doe’s center of gravity was the Krahn ethnic group[i], which also composed the bulk of the country’s military, the Armed Force of Liberia (AFL); over his time in office, other groups came to harbor deep resentments against them. The third phase of the conflict, 1993 – 1997, witnessed the signing of a ceasefire in Cotonou, Benin, which had the perverse effect of accelerating the splintering of rebels groups as individuals vied for positions in the transitional government, including Ulimo which broke down along ethnic lines. [iv] The AFL was unable to halt the NPFL, who closed in on the capitol, Monrovia. ECOWAS brokered the Bamako Ceasefire between the INPFL, AFL, and NPFL in November 1990, creating a weak government headed by a former Doe political opponent and unrecognized by the NPFL. [v], Thus was the government able to keep Monrovia from completely falling to rebels, despite the limited areas they controlled. Both sources of numbers are both imperfect: Ellis’ is arrived at by combining data about known massacres and the expert insights into the patterns of the conflict[xviii], and Cibelli, Hoover, and Krüger is based on in-depth analysis of violence included in TRC witness testimony, a subset of the total number of possible violations. “Media and Conflict in Sierra Leone: National and International Perspectives of the Civil War.”Global Media Journal 4.1 (2010): 20-27. 'Change has arrived’: Why Thailand is in crisis. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers and the International Peace Academy. Outside of Liberia, only one person has been held criminally accountable for civil war era atrocities. 2004. [xiii] Cibelli, Hoover, Krüger, 2009, 21 – 22. [xx] The discrepancy between the other numbers may be attributed to the inclusion of a wider range of lethal phenomenon beyond killing: starvation, malnutrition and disease as a result of the conflict.

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